We often hear complaints from new Linux users, regretting that Linux doesn’t have any interesting games to play. Actually, that’s a big mistake because many powerful emulators are ready to spoil the turmoil of your game soul.
Indeed, not many people know that many emulators can be used on Linux due to the lack of documentation about Linux emulators. In this article, I will provide a list of emulators that are ready to run, starting from the Nintendo DS –
DeSmuMe – Nintendo DSi
Surely you have heard of the portable console product from Nintendo called the Nintendo DS. Well, DeSmuMe is an emulator to play games on Nintendo DS. Many games can be played on DeSmuMe, provided the 3D is not too big because DeSmuMe is still not strong enough to play them.
You can download it at desmume.org, or if you use Ubuntu, you just have to look for it in the Ubuntu Software Center. It’s already available. After installing it, you just need to find the game you want to play. You can see a list of Nintendo DS games and get them at Kaskus.us.
Well, maybe you want to reminisce about the past, when you had fun playing Play Station X or PS1 games, now PCSX-Reloaded is an emulator for playing PS1 games. Almost all games on PS1 can be played using this emulator.
You can download PCSX-Reloaded at codeplex.com, or if you’re using Ubuntu 9.10, it’s already available in the repositories.
With interactive games on Nintendo Wii, everyone will want to play them. So now Linux emulators for Nintendo Wii are also available. The emulator is named Dolphin, and you can download this emulator at www.dolphin-emu.com or at code.google.com.
How to install the Dolphin emulator on the Wii, please have a look at code.google.com/p/dolphin-emu/wiki/Linux_dependencies. Because I use an old laptop, so I’ve never experienced Dolpin, so I can’t review the Dolphin emulator emulator
JPCSP Now that we’re looking at using an emulator for the PSP, this Sony PSP already has an emulator and can run on Linux. With the Java programming language, so JPCSP can run on all platforms as long as you first install the JDK and JSE on your computer.
You can download the emulator on the official website, namely jpcsp.org.
I also can’t review this application because I just found out. However, I’m going to try it today, so wait for the review.
Google Chrome / Mozilla Firefox – https://ahsahtapress.org/
Why do you have to try so hard to play some games if you can easily use Google Chrome and Mozilla Firefox? In this era, people are looking for entertainment by using Internet services. Based on the online gambling website https://ahsahtapress.org/ testimonial, in 2021, so many people are usually playing online slot games or online gambling on a reliable website like them. As long as they get a significant chance of winning some slots games, they will never turn their eyes to other offline or online games. Until today, online gambling services and websites have been in pretty high demand since the C-19 outbreaks.
Now almost all consoles can be played on Linux, and now there is no reason not to use Linux because of the limited application for playing games.
Let’s talk about the advantages of using Linux as your operation system.
Usually, the use or selection of the operating system is based on its advantages. Therefore, you can first compare the advantages of this operating system to ensure that Linux is the right choice. What are the advantages of Linux?
Advantages of Linux
When using Linux, you can enjoy a free license. So, there is no need to pay some money to be able to use this OS.
Using 32-bit code
With the use of 32-bit code, Linux can run well with minimal crashes when the application is run. As a user, you also don’t have to worry about installing applications that don’t comply with the Linux bit code.
Although it is open source, Linux comes with a high level of security compared to other OS. No need to worry about virus attacks that can threaten important data on your computer.
Nice Graphic Display
Linux doesn’t rule out graphics. This is evident in every version and type of Linux released. Ever used Ubuntu? The user interface is so nice and pleasing to the eye.
Source Code Can Be Modified
When needed, you can make modifications because Linux is open source. Programmers pay attention to this.
Choice of a suitable server computer
Want to make the computer as a server or admin? Of course, you can because Linux is very light but stable. Linux Debian is one option that can be used as a server.
Easier When Run
Linux is a lightweight system. Because it does not require large resources, you can even run it on an old computer. Just adjust it to your needs, and you will feel comfortable.
Disadvantages of Linux
Like any other operating system, Linux is certainly not present perfectly. In other words, although it comes with many advantages, Linux also has disadvantages. As a result, you may find some drawbacks in using Linux as an operating system of choice. What are the drawbacks?
Need More Skills
Although Linux is free for anyone to use, it is still rare for the general public to use this operating system. Therefore, technicians who can do the troubleshooting for Linux problems may still be rarely encountered. However, that doesn’t mean it doesn’t exist, and you can’t find it.
Lack of Software Support
Unfortunately, some popular and frequently used applications, including Adobe Photoshop, are not compatible with Linux.
Difficult Installation and Configuration Process
Are you so familiar with the Windows installation system that it is considered quite easy? Unlike the case with Linux, where the installation process is a little more difficult.
More confused to make a choice? If you only choose the downside, Linux will never be able to meet your standards and needs. Therefore, do not forget the advantages it provides. It would be better if you try this operating system first while enjoying the experience you get. Then, you can make a final decision whether Linux is really an operating system choice that can understand your needs in using a particular device.
Linux and Windows are the most common operating systems used on webserver hosting websites. To choose between the two OS, one must know the differences and advantages of each OS. Webmasters who are new powers at times are not aware of the type of web hosting platform used on their own servers.
Linux-based plans are cheaper than Windows-based hosting. This is because Linux is open-source software (free), whereas windows is Microsoft’s proprietary software and has a license fee for its use. Linux has gained a lot of popularity and is the favorite choice of many web hosts. In addition to being cost-effective, and the web hosting platform is quite stable. But that doesn’t mean that it is the one solution for all kinds of hosting needs. Many web hosting applications also require using the Windows platform.
The world of Web Hosting is flooded with lots of packages to choose from. The first and most important decision you have to make is about the operating system or web hosting platform that will support your website. There is a fundamental difference between the visual and functional aspects of a web host server. Based on your own needs, you can judge the most suitable web hosting platform and clear all the confusion related to this. It will help you more if you can compare these two basic aspects of a server environment.
1) Software Application
If your website will choose software or applications such as ASP, NET, VB Script, Access, FrontPage, Microsoft SQL, Windows Media Streaming, etc., then it is very suitable to use a windows hosting platform.
Similarly, if your website has requests for PHP, Perl, or MySQL databases, it would be advisable to host with a Linux platform. Not that Windows can’t handle this, but it does work better in Unix and Linux or FreeBSD environments which are ideal for them.
Looking at it from a different perspective, if your website only contains a lot of static pages like those created in HTML and CSS, then either Linux or Windows can work well. Because generally, for websites like that, everyone/webmasters will choose to use a lightweight platform, and this can be returned according to your needs.
2) Price Factor
The price factor is the most easily recognizable difference between the two hosting platforms. Linux is a cheaper option compared to Windows.
Windows is Microsoft proprietary software and has a license fee for its use. The web host has to bear the extra cost to run the webserver under a Windows environment. Hence this platform is an expensive option.
On the other hand, Linux is open-source software that is free to use. For those who want to find a budget that fits the budget and is free to use, you can use Linux OS because Linux platform hosting provides a cost solution without sacrificing reliability.
3) Reliability and Safety
Both Linux and Windows provide quite reliable hosting platforms. However, between the two servers, the Linux base experienced less downtime compared to the Windows-based server. Linux platform hosting is more reliable, even though it is an open-source product, because experienced programmers can customize the source code to meet their own maintenance and work requirements. Additionally, with open source code, they can install various security add-ons to create a secure environment. This ensures lower downtime, protection from third-party viruses, hacker invasions, and, as a result, is more reliable. You can visit og-news.com if you want to see a website that has reliability and safety in displaying news about online gaming.
Once a comparison is made of the features of the two types of hosting platforms, you should identify your own needs. For example, if your website demands Windows-based technology like ASP, NET, MSSQL, or any other Windows-based, then your choice should be clear with Windows platform hosting.
On the other hand, if you plan to use PHP, Perl, Python, or MySQL databases, Linux platform hosting is ideal.
In the absence of certain requirements, such as in the case where the website has the most static pages, you can choose the platform you like.
The Linux operating system is one of the best known. Of course, besides Windows and also Mac Os, which are much more widely used. Even though it is fairly familiar, the number of Linux users is far less than the Mac OS or Windows operating systems. Even though there are many advantages and advantages of using Linux when compared to the other two operating systems. One of the reasons for the lack of Linux users is because of the many false facts that are heard about this operating system.
There are tons of false or incorrect facts about the Linux operating system. So that it makes many people feel doubtful and even afraid to try to use an operating system with these many advantages. For that, below, we will give you what the wrong facts about Linux that should no longer be trusted are. Here it is!
✅ Linux looks unattractive
This fact is completely false. Linux has a GUI that is no less attractive. Apart from being as attractive as the appearance of Windows, the Linux GUI is actually not as complicated as many users imagine. For example, for Ubuntu Linux users, the GUI that they have is definitely very attractive and also not difficult. There are also several other types of Linux that are just as interesting.
For users new to Linux, installing a display theme will also be very helpful. There are currently several different types of display themes available for download for Linux. For example, the Windows theme on Linux.
Some Linux distributions like elementary os have a GUI that is no less beautiful than macOS.
✅ No virus in Linux
One more false fact about Linux is that there is no virus in this operating system. In fact, even computers or laptops that use the Linux operating system can catch viruses. It’s just maybe not as frequent as Windows. This is because viruses or malware created for Windows will not work on computers with the Linux operating system.
Interestingly, most viruses are currently only made for Windows only. It is very rare for a virus to be created for the Mac OS operating system or even Linux. But again, that doesn’t mean there isn’t a virus at all on the operating system.
✅ Linux operation only via terminal
When it was first introduced a few years ago, Linux had to be operated via a terminal. Much like DOS. But then again, that was then. Currently, developers have developed many different types and types for Linux. Where the operation becomes very easy. Until now, almost all types of Linux operating systems can be used as usual. Like when you use a computer with the Windows or Mac OS operating system. The use of terminals in Linux has become increasingly rare, as rare as when you use a terminal or CMD on Windows. So, the difficulty of using it is no longer a reason not to use Linux.
✅ Cannot play games on Linux
Wrong! Currently, there are lots of games made for the Linux operating system. Not only that, even some types of games can be accessed and played as usual with Linux. For example, DOTA 2 or left four dead games are available for Windows, Linux, and Mac OS operating systems. Even well-known game developers like Steam are now providing support for use with Linux. So, using this operating system doesn’t mean you can’t play games anymore.
If you feel bored with Windows or Linux games, you can try various games online on various platforms. For example, if you like playing games, you can visit several online sites that provide these games. We recommend that you play on trusted agent sites because they can also give you various benefits. Usually, they provide Casino IDN Live games, which are very popular with online betting lovers, such as oglok online, baccarat, monopoly, dice 6, and many more.
Hi all, in this article I will share 10 basic commands for RedHat 7 or Linux which are commonly used by system administrators. Hopefully, it can be a reference for learning for beginners.
1. Uptime Command
On a RedHat or Linux operating system, the way to find out how long the server has been up for is using the #uptime command.
2.w Command (anyone currently accessing)
In simple terms, the #w command will display who is currently accessing the server as well as displaying detailed information on the process being carried out by each user.
This kind of commands usually used in many online betting sites, this command can help you monitor who is using the server. In other words, it will help you maintain the security level on your site. A giant online betting company such as YukBola from Asia, manage to keep their data safe by utilizing this command to the fullest. Thus, nowadays this company is being trusted by its loyal members for a place to play their bet without any risk and concern about safety. Super safe!
3. ls Command (view directory contents)
#Ls command is used to view the contents of a directory.
Command #ls -ltrh to display detailed directory contents including permissions, owner, file size, and file names.
4. Copy, Move & Rename Command
Command for file copy is
server # cp filename / destination directory / filename
The command to move a file is
server # mv filename / destination directory / filename
The command to rename files in the same directory is
server # cp -i nama_file nama_baru then the server will ask for approval whether the file can be overwritten or not
5. Cat Command (view the contents of the text file)
Command #cat is usually used to view the contents of a text file
6. Cd Command (move directory)
As the name implies, the #cd (change directory) command is used to move to another directory. For example, I want access to the / home / guest directory, then the command that needs to be typed:
7. Pwd Command (current directory location)
Command #pwd means the present work directory or directory that I am currently accessing.
8. SSH Command (secure shell / access to server)
SSH command is usually used for access to another RedHat or Linux server.
server # ssh username @ ip_address
For example, I want to SSH to server 192.168.22.100 using the username root
9. Top Command (see usage and process)
The #top command is used to see real time CPU, memory, swap, and process usage.
10. Grep Command (sort directory contents)
Grep is very useful for sorting files in a directory or sorting a running process name based on text (string).
For example, I want to see the file name or directory name that has the word ‘lost’
For example, I want to see a process running with the name ‘crond’
Those are the 10 basic RedHat commands that are commonly used every day, hopefully, they can be useful. Keep learning and feel free to leave comments or questions for discussion together. I will respond as soon as possible and see you in the next article.
The Most Popular Linux Distro in 2020
Red Hat is a Linux distribution developed by a company called Red Hat Inc and is often called Red Hat Linux but in 2003 it was changed to Red Hat Enterprise Linux specifically for corporate environments. This operating system was also the first to popularize the use of the RPM Package Manager system.
This OS stands for “Community Enterprise Operating System” and is an example of a Linux distribution system developed by The CentOS Project. This operating system is created using source code that comes from a different OS, Red Hat. Therefore, in terms of product CentOs is very similar to Red Hat Enterprise Linux.
This is one of the Linux distributions that was developed because it is sponsored and supported by Red Hat but was created by a special team called the “Fedora Project”. Even the name Fedora is taken from one of the characters in the Red Hat logo itself. Similar to Red Hat, the Fedora operating system also uses the RPM Package Manager system.
openSUSE is also an operating system that is founded on the Linux kernel or so-called Linux distributions. The openSUSE Project as the developer created this operating system with the aim that Linux users can be more advanced with stable and user-friendly performance. openSUSE is more often used as a desktop/server operating system.
The Mandrake operating system or what can also be called Mandriva Linux is one type of Linux distribution that this time was developed by a company called Mandriva. Similar to Fedora, the Mandrake operating system also uses the RPM Package Manager system.
The naming process of one of these Linux distributions is quite unique. The originator for the first time, Ian Murdock, gave the name Debian because it was a combination of his name and his former lover. One of the reasons why Debian is one of the most widely used Linux distributions is because of its good security.
Ubuntu is an operating system based on Debian and developed by a company from South Africa called Canonical ltd. The naming origin of Ubuntu also comes from the South African language which means humanity. By its nature as an open-source OS, Ubuntu is deliberately prioritized for public or server purposes.
If previously you knew that a Linux distribution called Ubuntu was made based on Debian, this time there is a Linux distribution based on Debian and Ubuntu. Its name is Mint or what is commonly called Linux Mint.
Zorin is a Linux distribution that has a graphical appearance very similar to Windows, even including its applications. Since the beginning, the purpose of making this operating system is so that users who are familiar with Windows can enjoy the features of Linux without having to experience difficulties.
Make your own choice and choose wisely, every single one of them is made with their own unique characteristics. Make sure to learn a thing or two before you choose, knowing the basic will surely help you to make the right call.
What are the advantages, disadvantages, and features of the Linux operating system? When compared with other OS such as Windows, and Mac OS X. This time the technology will explain what Linux OS is, and also some of the advantages and disadvantages of the Linux operating system.
Definition – What is Linux OS?
Linux was originally developed in 1991, by a Finnish student named Linus Torvalds, as a personal project. Initially, Linux was not an operating system, but only a kernel. The kernel is arguably the core or heart of an operating system. Linux is built and developed in an open-source (open source) and similar to Unix (Unix Like).
The name Linux was also taken on a suggestion from a friend Linus Torvald. Along with its development and assisted by various kinds of developers around the world, Linux distributions are created. Linux distributions are operating systems for computing devices, and applications are distributed using the Linux kernel.
Some examples of popular Linux distributions include:
And many more, of course.
Here are 7 advantages of Linux OS:
Unlike Windows which is a closed source, and paid. Linux is a free and open-source operating system. Which means that anyone can view and edit the source code, as needed. So we can install the OS on multiple computers or laptops, without any license restrictions. Linux is also used successfully for the development of a mobile operating system, called Android.
One of the advantages that Linux has, compared to Windows OS, is the security factor. Almost rarely, there is a virus or malware that attacks Linux users or users. Compared to Windows OS, which is very vulnerable to attacks. This is because Linux is only targeted by certain users or users, such as people who work in the server section, IT activists, and so on. So you don’t need to install anti-virus software when using Linux.
3. System is Stable
Linux systems allow for less frequent crashes, tend to be more stable than Windows OS. Where we usually see a “Blue Screen” on our monitor screen, for Windows users or users. And if you are using Windows, you have to get used to restarting or rebooting the computer, to some extent.
4. For Server
Because of guaranteed security and a stable system. Therefore, Linux is often used as an operating system for servers, cloud computing, from various companies around the world.
5. Low Specifications
Linux does not require a high computer or laptop specifications to run normally. Because Linux can be fairly light, it doesn’t consume a lot of resources on the computer.
6. Can Read Windows Filesystem
Linux can read and write files stored on filesystems in Windows, such as NTFS and FAT32. One example of a Linux distribution that has this capability is Ubuntu. Especially if you dual boot Ubuntu with Windows, on your computer or laptop.
7. Large community
For those of you who want to learn Linux. You don’t need to worry about resources for learning. Because it is open-source, Linux has a community that is spread all over the world. And there are many forums, blogs on the internet, which discuss topics, problems about the Linux operating system.
Linux, created by a programmer named Linus Torvalds, is an open source-based operating system.
Because of the ‘uniqueness’ of this operating system, it’s no wonder that many people use Linux for security reasons, and it’s free.
Even though some people find Linux difficult and confusing, it doesn’t mean you can’t have fun with this OS. Like the operating system in general, you can do anything related to entertainment on a laptop or PC that installs this OS, like playing one of them.
Quoted from various sources, here are some game recommendations that you can play on devices that carry the Linux OS.
It is a game with the FPS genre that is distributed by Alientrap Software based on the GPL license. The game, which was first released in 2005, uses a game engine that has been modified in such a way.
✅ Battle of Wesnoth
Battle of Wesnoth is one of the games developed by David White since 2003 and is recommended to be played on Linux-based devices. Games that have this genre of strategy have gameplay or rules that are quite simple and quite challenging.
Uniquely this game can be played in multiplayer or simultaneously up to 8 people. With notes, these 8 people are still in the same network.
✅ America’s Army
One of the tactical games that can be played multiplayer and FPS genre was developed by the Federal government of the United States. In addition to having fun, initially, the purpose of this game was made as a means or medium for propaganda by the American army and to recruit US army personnel.
✅ Aliens Arena
Still, with the FPS genre game released by COR Entertainment in 2004, where the storyline and gameplay of this game are similar to Quake, which is played single player against computer bots. Not only that, but through this game, there is also an internal browser that can be used to search for opponents in online games.
✅ Enemy Territory: Quake Wars
The game, which also has FPS genre, is a continuation of the Wolfenstein: Enemy Territory game. Not surprisingly, this game also has a plot and gameplay that is almost the same as the game Wolfenstein: Enemy Territory.
Those are 5 recommendations of the most suitable games to be played on Linux OS-based devices and hopefully useful.
It must be admitted that although there are now more and more numbers, the availability of applications for the Linux platform is still less than Windows and macOS.
Therefore, some people might have trouble finding the application they want on Linux. But if you are a gambler and want a online poker application on your Linux system, you can try to check it on Google, which is a good browser to play your favorite game there. Despite you are on a Linux system, you can easily download the online poker game and play it without being interrupted by the ads.
Luckily, there are similar applications with the same features as their favorite applications on the Windows platform. Well, this time, I want to share 5 Linux applications that I use frequently. Curious? Check below.
5 Most Useful Androbuntu Linux Applications
First, there is Gimp. For those of you who don’t know, Gimp is an open-source photo processing application. Gimp is often juxtaposed with Photoshop because its availability is almost similar, yes, even though it’s not as complete as Photoshop.
But along with its development later, I’m sure Gimp will be more established. And on Androbuntu, Gimp is usually used to compress images, crop images, and other things related to images and photos.
Inkscape is the software that I usually use to make vector images such as logos and icons. Speaking of which, I also created the Androbuntu logo using Inkscape. Usually, when there are tutorial articles that require me to create banners or interesting images into it, I always use Inkscape.
Based on the functions and features, Inkscape can be likened to Adobe Illustrator and CorelDraw. Yes, although the features are not as complete as Illustrator, for me, who is not a professional designer, it is enough. The advantages of Inkscape compared to Illustrator include its small size and lightweight.
I think the browser is a mandatory application that should be on all computers and laptops. Especially for a blogger like me who most of my work time is spent in the browser. And for the mainstay browser, I dropped on Chrome. The reason?
Simple and lightweight display and synchronization feature that really helps to synchronize the browser history on the laptop and Android. And of course, Chrome is fully integrated with other Google services.
I am one of those who are quite anti-storing data on the hard disk. Both the internal hard drive and external hard drive. Because by storing data on the hard disk, the risk of losing data is very large. Either because of damage to the hard disk, lost the hard disk, or something else. And I have felt the pain of losing data because of this.
The pain was far more painful than being left behind when I was, unfortunately, unfortunately. So now I save all data in the cloud. The cloud storage application that I use is Dropbox. The reason is simple because Dropbox is one of the few cloud providers that provide Linux versions of applications. So I can sync the data that I store on Android and also the laptop.
To write articles that I publish on Androbuntu, I usually write to them using Simplenote. Only when finished, will I move to the WordPress dashboard. Simplenote, as the name suggests, is a very simple note-taking application. But it really met my needs.
Simplenote’s main features include synchronization between devices, making an unlimited number of notes, and completely free. And of course, what I like the most is that there is a Linux version of the application. So I can write on a smartphone, then continue on the laptop. Or vice versa.
Well, that was the 5 most useful Linux application version of Androbuntu. Do you use it too?
Microsoft provides Windows, in this case, Windows 10, with a variety of licenses through different channels, including Retail, OEM, and Volume.
Each channel offers a full version of Windows 10 but has different rules. This article reviews the notions of the three channels and the attributes that make them different from each other.
As mentioned, each license channel offers different attributes, which can determine what can and cannot be done, such as upgrading or downgrading the operating system. This article, therefore, will also review how to check the type of license installed on a device.
✅ Windows Retail
The Windows license from a Retail channel is the simplest, most common, and easiest license to obtain. Users can buy it through online retail stores or local stores, which usually sell Windows with official box packaging. Retail licenses, for information, are also often called Full Packaged Products (FPP).
Retail licenses can only be used on one device and by one user. However, users can move it to a different device, by deactivating it first on the previous device. This license transfer process has no restrictions; users can do it on an unlimited number of different devices.
With a Retail license, users will get full support from Microsoft, including providing solutions to the problems being faced, both related to software and hardware. This license also allows users to upgrade the operating system, but not to downgrade it.
✅ Windows OEM
OEM stands for Original Equipment Manufacturer, which, if translated literally, is an original equipment manufacturer. Licenses obtained through the OEM channel are usually obtained when purchasing a device that has been pre-installed by Windows by original equipment manufacturers, such as Dell, HP, or Asus.
An OEM license, because it is obtained together with a device, cannot be transferred to a different device. The Windows product key from an OEM license is usually displayed on the bottom of the device using a sticker. However, lately, these keys have usually been linked directly to the device’s hardware, and are only used by Windows when needed.
In addition to upgrading the operating system, users with an OEM license can also downgrade it, with a limit of two versions. This downgrade only applies to the same edition, such as Windows 10 Pro, which can be downgraded to Windows 7 Pro, or Windows 7 Enterprise to Windows XP Enterprise, etc.
The price for an OEM license is also cheaper than a Retail license because it has been bundled with the cost of the device purchased. However, users with an OEM license will not get support from Microsoft, but directly from the original equipment manufacturers that produce and sell the device.
✅ Windows Volume
The Windows license obtained through the Volume channel is different from the two channels previously mentioned. This license is not sold to individuals, but organizations, such as companies, schools, or government. Therefore, these licenses are usually sold and bought in large quantities.
Volume licenses usually cannot be installed on devices that are not part of the organization concerned. Organizations also usually activate all their tools with one product key through a Key Management Service (KMS) server or Multiple Activation Keys (MAK).
Check the type of license installed
Users can easily check the type of license installed on the device. The steps to do this involve the Windows Server License Manager Script (slmgr) which can be run through the Command Prompt:
Step 1: Open Command Prompt through an administrator account.
Users can do this by opening Start, then searching for the keyword “Command Prompt.” Once found, right-click Command Prompt, then select the “Run as administrator” option.
Step 2: Paste the slmgr / dli command code in the Command Prompt, then press Enter.
This will open a dialog box, which then displays the edition of Windows used, as well as the type of license installed. The device I’m using, for example, uses Windows 10 Pro, with a license obtained through the Retail channel, as shown in the screenshot above.
TLDR: Windows Retail is a license that is usually purchased through a retail store, whereas Windows OEM refers to a license that is usually obtained together with the device purchased. Both are for individuals. Windows Volume, on the other hand, refers to licenses that are intended for organizations, and are usually purchased in large quantities.